Page 1 of 1

14. kȟ, pȟ, tȟ versus kh, ph, th (rule)

PostPosted: February 11th, 2009, 2:43 am
by Jan
NLD.1, page 697; NLD.2, page 751

The previous chapters described that there are two sets of aspirated stops:

1. kh, ph, th (soft or glottal aspiration, 7% of stops in texts)
2. kȟ, pȟ, tȟ (guttural or velar aspiration, 12% of stops in texts)

The distribution of these two sets of stop is mostly predictable because they occur before different vowels. The following table shows the distribution of the two types of stops before vowels:

kȟ / pȟ / tȟkh / ph / th
occur beforeoccur before
e e

One can easily memorize that kh, ph, th come before i, iŋ, u. Then kȟ, pȟ, tȟ come before everything else.
The situation is not so clear cut before the vowel e. Both types of aspiration can occur before e although they are often not interchangeable. You can find out more about the aspirated stops before e in NLD.1 page 698.

Below is an exercise for the distribution of kh, ph, th versus kȟ, pȟ, tȟ. Fill the proper stop based on the rule described in the table above (you will need to read NLD.1 page 698 to know the answers for the last 7 questions):

1: to shoot

2: it is hot

3: to fight

4: country

5: nose

6: to be full (of food)

7: anima hide

8: house

9: rope

10: to throw at sb

11: abalone, crockery

12: the top of something

13: large

14: prairie turnip

15: nostrils

16: upper lip; nose or snout or muzzle of animals

17: the first time

18: at all costs

19: grandmother

20: cheek

21: to be born

22: turtle

23: really, truly

24: sharp pointed

25: for a long time

26: to love sm/smth

27: young, new

28: both

29: I will say (from epȟÁ – I say)