14. kȟ, pȟ, tȟ versus kh, ph, th (rule)

Tókhel Lakȟól’iya takúku eyápi na owápi kiŋ hená uŋspéič’ičhiya so
Learn how to pronounce Lakota sounds and how to write them.

14. kȟ, pȟ, tȟ versus kh, ph, th (rule)

Postby Jan » February 11th, 2009, 2:43 am

NLD.1, page 697; NLD.2, page 751

The previous chapters described that there are two sets of aspirated stops:

1. kh, ph, th (soft or glottal aspiration, 7% of stops in texts)
2. kȟ, pȟ, tȟ (guttural or velar aspiration, 12% of stops in texts)

The distribution of these two sets of stop is mostly predictable because they occur before different vowels. The following table shows the distribution of the two types of stops before vowels:

kȟ / pȟ / tȟkh / ph / th
occur beforeoccur before
ai
o
u
e e


One can easily memorize that kh, ph, th come before i, iŋ, u. Then kȟ, pȟ, tȟ come before everything else.
The situation is not so clear cut before the vowel e. Both types of aspiration can occur before e although they are often not interchangeable. You can find out more about the aspirated stops before e in NLD.1 page 698.

Below is an exercise for the distribution of kh, ph, th versus kȟ, pȟ, tȟ. Fill the proper stop based on the rule described in the table above (you will need to read NLD.1 page 698 to know the answers for the last 7 questions):


1: to shoot



2: it is hot



3: to fight



4: country



5: nose



6: to be full (of food)



7: anima hide



8: house



9: rope



10: to throw at sb



11: abalone, crockery



12: the top of something



13: large



14: prairie turnip



15: nostrils



16: upper lip; nose or snout or muzzle of animals



17: the first time



18: at all costs



19: grandmother



20: cheek



21: to be born



22: turtle



23: really, truly



24: sharp pointed



25: for a long time



26: to love sm/smth



27: young, new



28: both




29: I will say (from epȟÁ – I say)

Lé Jan miyé yeló.
Blihíč’iyapi na Lakȟól’iyapi kiŋ čhaŋtét’iŋsya yutáŋyaŋkel uŋspéič’ičhiya po. Héčhel uŋglúkinipi kte ló.
Jan
Activity level - ičíwikčemna yámni akéyamni
Activity level - ičíwikčemna yámni akéyamni
 
Posts: 5811
Joined: December 15th, 2008, 1:23 pm
Location: Lakȟól’iyapi kiŋ tȟamákȟočhe
Karma: 3031

Return to Tókhel eyápi na owápi - PRONUNCIATION and SPELLING

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest